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View sample training programmes for Refresher Training, Quality Assurance Training, Training of Trainers, Disease-specific Training and Interactive Software Training Programmes.

Refresher Training


Training of Trainers


Quality Assurance Training


Regular refresher training is important to maintain and upgrade the quality of laboratory test results at peripheral laboratories.  It is especially important for staff posted in isolated areas and staff working primarily in vertical disease-specific programmes.  

Refresher-training programmes can be tailored to country specific needs.  The training program in the attached example has been adapted to the needs of laboratory assistants and technicians working at PHC centre or district hospital laboratories in Nepal.  The course content has been selected based on laboratory tests performed at district level laboratories. 

The programme gives trainees a sound base of theoretical knowledge on all important subject areas.  However, it stresses more on skill related knowledge than academic knowledge. 

Example of a Refresher Training Programme



Quality Assurance Programmes ensure laboratory staff, clinicians and patients that laboratory test results are reliable, reproducible and relevant.

A National Quality Assurance Programme that includes Internal Quality Control Procedures, External Quality Assessment and Quality Management is an effective tool to improve the quality of laboratory services and restore trust in laboratory test results.

The Quality Assurance Training Programme has been specifically designed for laboratory personnel working in public health laboratories in Nepal.  The course content has been selected based on laboratory tests performed at district level laboratories.  It could easily be adapted to needs in other developing countries.

This training programme  provides trainees with general knowledge about the National Quality Assurance Programme and specific skills on Internal Quality Control procedures for a wide range of test procedures.

Example of a Quality Assurance Training Programme.....



Senior staff is often required to visit peripheral laboratory units, evaluate the work of colleagues or guide them to improve the quality of services.  The training of trainers programme is designed to upgrade skills of senior staff to carry out supervision and monitoring visits to peripheral laboratory more effectively and efficiently. 

Effective supervision requires excellent communication skill, sound managerial skills, knowledge on the subject, and teaching skills.  The training of trainers programme covers all these areas and re-enforces knowledge through practical exercises and group work.   

Better supervision of staff in peripheral laboratories leads to higher standard of work and improved quality of laboratory services at the peripheral level.  It encourages a sense of belonging and team spirit. 

Example of a 10 days training course�


Interactive Software


Disease Specific Training

Microscope-based laboratory tests represent the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in laboratories of developing countries.  At peripheral laboratories, the microscope is often the most costly equipment and the diagnosis of many communicable diseases depends on image-based diagnostic tests.  In spite of their importance, image-based diagnostic tests are not adequately taught at training institutions in developing countries and photographic images of specimens are frequently not available.  Supervised instructions suffer from lack of equipment, availability of suitable samples, variability in microscope quality, and instructor know-how.  

The University of Washington (Seattle, WA, USA), Department of Laboratory Medicine, has developed a number of image-based personal computer programs (TUTOR) that teach microscopic laboratory tests.  Studies in the United States have shown that the TUTOR programs help medical technologist and medical students learn to interpret image-based laboratory tests and endorsed the feasibility of using computer programs for competency assessment in clinical laboratory.  Image-based personal computer programs are now widely used as learning resources and teaching aids in medical schools in western countries. Very little is known about the use of image-based computer programs as learning resources for primary healthcare workers in developing countries.

Recently, three TUTOR programs have been evaluated at the National Public Health Laboratory in Kathmandu, Nepal.  

View results of  the TUTOR software evaluation in Nepal.... 

Link to the University of Washington...




Disease Specific Programmes are designed to meet specific training needs.  They may be one day training courses on the use of the microscopy or one-week training courses on sputum examination for tuberculosis,  malaria parasites or current diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted diseases. 

All programmes are tailored to the specific needs of laboratories at the peripheral level. 

Example training on use of microscope �  

Example training on sputum examination for TB screening...



The Public Health Care Laboratory - 2001 � Gabriele Mallapaty